Friday, 20 April 2012

London Olympics 2012 – A status check in pics

London Olympics 2012 – A status check in pics

Wednesday, 18 April 2012


TypeIntercontinental ballistic missile[1][2]
Place of origin India
Service history
In service2014[3] (Under development) [4]
Used byIndian Army
Production history
ManufacturerDefence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO),
Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL)
Weight50,000 kg[5]
Length17.5 m [6]
Diameter2 m

Maximum range6,000 kilometres (3,700 mi)[7]
Warhead weight1.1 ton/1000 kg[10]

EngineThree stage solid
Over 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi)[1][7]
Speed24 Mach[8]
8 x 8 Tatra TEL & Rail Mobile Launcher (Canisterized missile package) [9]
TransportRoad mobile.


Agni-VI is an intercontinental ballistic missile speculated to be in very rudimentary stages of development by India. It's said to be the latest & most advanced version among the Agni (missile) program. Capable of being launched from submarines or from land, it will be able to strike a target at a distance of 6000–10000 km with MIRVed warheads..


Dr M Natrajan, a senior defense scientist of India, disclosed in 2007 that DRDO is working on an upgraded version of the Agni III known as the Agni-V (Earlier known as Agni-III* and Agni-IV) and that it will be ready in 4 years. The missile will have a range of about 5,000 km.
It will be quite easy to store and swiftly transport the missile by road since it's a canister-launch missile system, unlike the earlier Agni missiles.
Agni-V would also carry MIRV (multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles) payloads being concurrently developed. A single MIRVed missile can deliver multiple warheads at different targets.
With a "launch mass" of around 50 tonne and a development cost of over Rs 2,500 crore, Agni-V will incorporate advanced technologies involving ring laser gyroscope and accelerometer for navigation and guidance. It takes its first stage from Agni-III, with a modified second stage and a miniaturized third stage to ensure it can fly to distances of 5,000 km. With a canister-launch system to impart higher road mobility, the missile will give the armed forces much greater operational flexibility than the earlier-generation of Agni missiles. According to a source, the accuracy levels of Agni-V and the 3,500-km Agni-IV (first tested in November 2011), with their better guidance and navigation systems, are far higher than Agni-I (700-km), Agni-II (2,000-km) and Agni-III (3,000-km).

The Agni-V will be operational by 2014-2015 after four to five repeatable tests by the DRDO.
Indian authorities believe that the solid-fuelled Agni-V is more than adequate to meet current threat perceptions and security concerns. The missile will bring the whole of Asia, including the northernmost parts of China, 70% of Europe and other regions under its strike envelope.


The Agni-V is a three stage solid fueled missile with composite motor casing in the third stage. In many aspects, the Agni-5 carries forward the Agni-3 pedigree. With composites used extensively to reduce weight, and a third stage added on (the Agni-3 was a two-stage missile), the Agni-5 can fly 1,500 km further than the 3,500 km range Agni-III. Two stages of this missile will be made of composite material. Advanced technologies like ring laser gyroscope and accelerometer will be used in the new missile. "You can reduce the payload and (further) increase the range of Agni-V" Saraswat told the Reuters in Feb 2010.

                                   IMPORTANT FACTS                                                                                

  • 1). India will break into the exclusive ICBM club of six countries including the United States, Russia, United Kingdom, China and France once the 50-tonne Agni-V is ready for induction by 2014-2015, although some others say unless India acquires an 8,000 km range missile, it cannot become a part of this club. But DRDO scientists are sticking to their claim.

  • 2). The Agni series of missiles, including Agni-V, is crucial for India's defence vis-a-vis China since Beijing has upped the ante in recent times by deploying missiles in Tibet Autonomous Region bordering India. 

  • 3). Tipped to be a game changer by DRDO Chief Dr VK Saraswat, Agni-V will extend India's reach all over Asia, parts of Africa and parts of Europe. 

  • 4). Once fired, it cannot be stopped. It travels faster than a bullet and can carry 1,000 kilograms of nuclear weapons. It can be launched using a special canister. Why, it can even be launched from a roadside!

  • 5). With a range of 5,000 km, Agni-V, once validated and inducted into the armed forces after several more tests, will be India's longest-range missile to carry a nuclear warhead. It will have the capacity to carry a nuclear warhead weighing over a tonne.

  • 6). Agni-V will give India the technological know-how to launch many nuclear warheads using the same missile.

  • 7). Agni-V can be configured to launch small satellites and can be used later even to shoot down enemy satellites in orbits.

  • 8). The missile can be launched only after a decision by the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS). 

  • 9). Seventeen metres tall, Agni-V's three-stages are powered by solid propellants. The first rocket engine takes it to a height of about 40 kilometres. The second stage pushes it to about 150 kilometres. The third stage takes it to about 300 kilometres above the Earth. The missile finally reaches a height of about 800 kilometres.

  • 10). This will be India's first launch of a 5,000 kilometre range missile.

Robotics Competition

Monday, 9 April 2012

UFOs - Is It Real? - National Geographic Channel

the principle of centrifugal pump...

centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotatingimpeller to create flow by the addition of energy to a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to move liquids through piping. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser orvolute chamber (casing), from where it exits into the downstream piping. Centrifugal pumps are used for large discharge through smaller heads...

**** Principle of the centrifugal pump****

An increase in the fluid pressure from the pump inlet to its outlet is created when the pump is in operation. This pressure difference drives the fluid 
through the system or plant.  
The centrifugal pump creates an increase in pressure by transferring mechanical energy from the motor to the fluid through the rotating impeller. 
The fluid flows from the inlet to the impeller centre and out along its blades. 
The centrifugal force hereby increases the fluid velocity and consequently 
also the kinetic energy is transformed to pressure. Figure shows an example of the fluid path through the centrifugal pump. 


The Birth of Amul

  • It all began when milk became a symbol of protest
  • Founded in 1946 to stop the exploitation by middlemen
  • Inspired by the freedom movement
The seeds of this unusual saga were sown more than 65 years back in Anand, a small town in the state of Gujarat in western India.  The exploitative trade practices followed by the local trade cartel triggered off the cooperative movement.  Angered by unfair and manipulative practices followed by the trade, the farmers of the district approached the great Indian patriot Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel for a solution.  He advised them to get rid of middlemen and form their own co-operative, which would have procurement, processing and marketing under their control. 

In 1946, the farmers of this area went on a milk strike refusing to be cowed down by the cartel.  Under the inspiration of Sardar Patel, and the guidance of leaders like Morarji Desai and Tribhuvandas Patel, they formed their own cooperative in 1946. 

This co-operative, the Kaira District Co-operative Milk Producers Union Ltd. began with just two village dairy co-operative societies and 247 litres of milk and is today better known as  Amul Dairy. Amul grew from strength to strength thanks to the inspired leadership of Tribhuvandas Patel, the founder Chairman and the committed professionalism of Dr Verghese Kurien,who was entrusted the task of running the dairy from 1950.

The then Prime Minister of India, Lal Bahadur Shastri decided that the same approach should become the basis of a National Dairy Development policy.  He understood that the success of Amul could be attributed to four important factors.  The farmers owned the dairy, their elected representatives managed the village societies and the district union,   they employed professionals to operate the dairy and manage its business.  Most importantly, the co-operatives were sensitive to the needs of farmers and responsive to their demands.

At his instance in 1965 the National Dairy Development Board was set up with the basic objective of replicating the Amul model.  Dr. Kurien was chosen to head the institution as its Chairman and asked to replicate this model throughout the country.

The Amul Model

The Amul Model of dairy development is a three-tiered structure with the dairy cooperative societies at the village level federated under a milk union at the district level and a federation of member unions at the state level.
  • Establishment of a direct linkage between milk producers and consumers by eliminating middlemen

  • Milk Producers (farmers) control procurement, processing and marketing

  • Professional management
The Amul model has helped India to emerge as the largest milk producer in the world. More than 13 million milk producers pour their milk in 1,28,799 dairy cooperative societies across the country. Their milk is processed in 176 District Co-operative Unions and marketed by 22 State Marketing Federations, ensuring a better life for millions.

Wednesday, 4 April 2012

lander (Viking)click to hear

Spacecraft designed to touch down on the surface of the celestial body so as to study it.
lander (Viking)